Prenatal NAS is caused by discontinuation of drugs taken by the pregnant mother, while postnatal NAS is caused by discontinuation of drugs directly to the infant. [Nas- Neonatal abstinence Synonymy]
EFFECTS to a newborn- -Exposed to hepatitis, AIDS, tuberculosis, and other STDs-Placenta can show oxygen deprivation, have a small gestational age measurements, organs can be affected, hemorrhage, jaundice, neurobehacior, is more acceptable to SIDS
SIGNS and symptoms--Central nervous system hyper irritability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, respiratory distress, and autonomic nervous system symptoms that include yawning, sneezing, mottling, and fever-At birth, these infants develop tumorous movements, which progress in severity-High-pitched crying, increased muscle tone, irritability, and exaggerated infant reflexes are common-Sucking of fists or thumbs is common, yet when feedings are administered, the infants have extreme difficulty and regurgitate frequently because of an uncoordinated and ineffectual sucking reflex. The infants may develop loose stools and are therefore susceptible to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance-
TREATMENTS- -Treatment and medication primarily focus on opiate and cocaine withdrawal. Although understanding polydrug interactions is difficult, no specific treatment plan for amphetamine, marijuana, tobacco, or alcohol withdrawal is recognized.-All medically treated newborns should constantly be monitored for cardiovascular, respiratory, seizures, and oxygen saturation changes.-In newborns with severe symptoms, intravenous fluids with electrolytes may be needed. Oral feedings may need to be withheld.